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Title Carnivore ecology and conservation : a handbook of techniques / edited by Luigi Boitani and Roger A. Powell.
Imprint Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012.

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Series Techniques in ecology and conservation series
Techniques in ecology and conservation series.
Subject Carnivorous animals -- Ecology.
Carnivorous animals -- Conservation.
Carnivorous animals -- Effect of human beings on.
Alt Name Boitani, Luigi.
Powell, Roger A.
Description 1 online resource : illustrations.
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references and index.
Summary Animals that must hunt and kill for at least part of their living are inherently interesting to many people and the role that carnivores play in biological communities attract interest from ecologists and conservation biologists. Conflicts with human activities stimulate continual debates about the management of carnivore populations, and throughout the world people seek workable solutions for human/carnivore coexistence. This concise yet authoritative handbook describes research methods and techniques for the study and conservation of all terrestrial carnivore species. Particular attention is paid to techniques for managing the human/carnivore interface. Descriptions of the latest methodologies are supported by references to case studies, whilst dedicated boxes are used to illustrate how a technique is applied to a specific land cover type, species, or particular socio-economic context. The book describes the most recent advances in modelling the patterns of animal distributions, movements, and use of land cover types, as well as including the most efficient methods to trap, handle, and mark carnivores. Carnivores are biogeographically diverse and whilst extensive scientific research has investigated many aspects of carnivore biology, not all species have been equally covered. This book is unique in its intention to provide practical guidance for carrying out research and conservation of carnivores across all species and areas of the world.
Contents Cover Page -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Foreword -- Contents -- List of contributors -- 1. Introduction: research and conservation of carnivores -- Luigi Boitani and Roger A. Powell -- 2. Designing carnivore surveys -- Luigi Boitani, Paolo Ciucci, and Alessio Mortelliti -- 2.1 Challenges of surveying carnivores -- 2.2 Planning a survey -- 2.2.1 Fundamentals of survey design: establishing goals and objectives -- 2.2.2 Fundamentals of survey design: carnivore survey data -- 2.2.3 Fundamentals of survey design: sampling design, methods, and protocols -- 2.2.4 Fundamentals of survey design: statistically formalizing survey objectives -- 2.3 Dealing with false absence -- 2.3.1 The fast growing family of occupancy models -- 2.3.2 Assumptions of occupancy models: the importance of a priori planning -- 2.3.3 Some practical issues -- 2.3.4 Designing an occupancy study -- 2.4 Key issues for developing a survey design -- 2.4.1 Target population and spatial extent of the survey -- 2.4.2 Attribute to measure -- 2.4.3 Sampling design -- 2.4.4 Sampling effort -- 2.4.5 Tackling system variability: measures of precision and their meaning -- 2.4.6 Field methods -- 3. Mind the map: trips and pitfalls in making and reading maps of carnivore distribution -- Carlo Rondinini and Luigi Boitani -- 3.1 Maps based on expert knowledge -- 3.1.1 Geographic range maps -- 3.1.2 Deductive habitat suitability models (HSM) -- 3.2 Maps based on species' occurrence surveys -- 3.2.1 Types of data -- 3.2.2 Biological significance and time relevance -- 3.2.3 Extrapolating points to map the distribution of a population -- 3.2.4 Inductive HSM -- 3.2.5 Caveats and limitations of deductive and inductive HSM -- 4. Noninvasive sampling for carnivores -- Marcella J. Kelly, Julie Betsch, Claudia Wultsch, Bernardo Mesa, and L. Scott Mills -- 4.1 Methods of noninvasive sampling.
4.1.1 Sign surveys -- 4.1.2 Genetic sampling -- 4.1.3 Camera-trap sampling -- 4.1.4 Endocrine/hormone sampling -- 4.2 Recent tools and advances in noninvasive sampling -- 4.2.1 Noninvasive DNA techniques -- 4.2.2 Using noninvasive DNA data -- 4.2.3 Data collection, handling, and analyses with remote cameras -- 4.2.4 Data collection, handling, and analyses for endocrine studies -- 4.3 Combining noninvasive and traditional approaches -- 4.3.1 Comparative approaches among noninvasive techniques -- 4.3.2 Combining traditional with noninvasive approaches -- 4.3.3 Data quality and integrity in noninvasive surveys -- 5. Humane and efficient capture and handling methods for carnivores -- Gilbert Proulx, Marc R.L. Cattet, and Roger A. Powell -- 5.1 Mechanical capture methods -- 5.1.1 Traps and sets -- 5.1.2 Trapping efficiency -- 5.1.3 Humaneness -- 5.1.4 Traps and sets for specific carnivores -- 5.2 Use of drugs for capture and restraint of carnivores -- 5.2.1 Drug access, storage, and handling -- 5.2.2 Selection of drugs for use in carnivores -- 5.2.3 Methods to administer drugs -- 5.2.4 The value of knowledge and experience -- 5.3 Identification, prevention, and treatment of medical emergencies associated with capture -- 5.3.1 Homeostasis, stress, distress, and treatment of medical emergencies -- 5.3.2 Necropsy -- 5.4 Euthanasia -- 5.5 Restraining and marking techniques -- 5.6 Designing effective trapping programs for carnivores -- 5.7 Animal welfare -- Appendices -- 6. Carnivores in hand -- Kerry R. Foresman -- 6.1 Aging -- 6.2 Standard body measurements -- 6.2.1 Body mass -- 6.2.2 Length measurements -- 6.2.3 Additional body measurements -- 6.2.4 Additional measurements, some to estimate age -- 6.2.5 Footpad patterns -- 6.3 Tooth eruption and measurements -- 6.3.1 Tooth eruption, wear, and age -- 6.3.2 Pulp cavity measurements and age.
6.3.3 Cementum annuli and age -- 6.4 Skull and skeletal measurements -- 6.4.1 Skull measurements -- 6.4.2 Skull fusion and age -- 6.4.3 Skeletal morphology and age -- 6.4.4 Eye lens and age -- 6.5 Pelage and age -- 6.6 Sex and reproduction -- 6.7 Injuries -- 6.8 Physiological parameters -- 6.8.1 Blood -- 6.8.2 Tissue samples -- 6.8.3 Other samples -- 6.9 Bioelectrical impedance -- 6.10 Asymmetry -- 7. Radio-telemetry equipment and applications for carnivores -- Mark R. Fuller and Todd K. Fuller -- 7.1 General background -- 7.2 Basic telemetry system -- 7.3 Radio-tracking field procedures -- 7.4 Satellite telemetry systems -- 7.5 Radio-telemetry applications for carnivores -- 8. Estimating demographic parameters -- Ken H. Pollock, James D. Nichols, and K. Ullas Karanth -- 8.1 Combined challenges of carnivore ecology and survey logistics -- 8.2 Detection probabilities and demographic inference -- 8.3 Capture-recapture models -- 8.3.1 Closed models -- 8.3.2 Open models -- 8.3.3 Robust design models -- 8.3.4 Natural individual tags -- 8.3.5 Design of capture-recapture studies -- 8.4 Telemetry mortality models -- 8.4.1 Survival models -- 8.4.2 Combining telemetry and regular mark-recapture models in one overall analysis -- 8.5 Occupancy models -- 8.5.1 Single-season models -- 8.5.2 Multi-season models -- 8.5.3 Software and study design -- 8.6 Probability sampling of carnivore tracks to estimate population density -- 8.7 Final thoughts -- 9. Movements, home ranges, activity, and dispersal -- Roger A. Powell -- 9.1 Research design -- 9.2 Movements -- 9.3 Home range -- 9.4 Territories -- 9.5 Estimating animals' home-ranges and territories -- 9.6 Home-range cores, overlap, and territoriality -- 9.6.1 Home-range cores -- 9.6.2 Home-range overlap -- 9.6.3 Static interactions -- 9.6.4 Dynamic interactions -- 9.6.5 Testing for territoriality.
9.7 Parting thoughts -- 10. Carnivore habitat ecology: integrating theory and application -- Michael S. Mitchell and Mark Hebblewhite -- 10.1 What is habitat? -- 10.1.1 Potential, sink, quality, source, suitable, or critical? What kind of habitat is it? -- 10.1.2 A fitness-based definition of habitat -- 10.2 What is carnivore habitat? -- 10.3 Measuring habitat use and selection by carnivores -- 10.3.1 The over-riding importance of questions -- 10.3.2 Why should carnivores be selective? -- 10.3.3 The importance of scale -- 10.3.4 Density dependence and habitat selection -- 10.3.5 Understanding habitat selection: study design -- 10.3.6 Using resource-selection functions and other approaches -- 10.3.7 Functional responses in resource selection -- 10.3.8 The importance of defining availability: recent advances from the field of movement modeling -- 10.3.9 Quantifying resources -- 10.4 Linking habitat selection to population consequences -- 10.4.1 Habitat-based population estimates -- 10.4.2 Combining habitat and spatial models of mortality risk -- 10.4.3 Spatially explicit population models -- 10.5 Conclusions -- 11. Describing food habits and predation: field methods and statistical considerations -- Erlend B. Nilsen, David Christianson, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Duncan Halley, John D.C. Linnell, Morten Odden, Manuela Panzacchi, Carole Toigo, and Barbara Zimmermann -- 11.1 Quantifying predators' diets -- 11.1.1 Scat analysis -- 11.1.2 Analysis of partly digested food items -- 11.1.3 Snow-and sandtracking -- 11.1.4 Telemetry-based methods to study predator diet -- 11.2 Ecological inferences from diet data -- 11.2.1 Quantifying kill rates and functional responses -- 11.2.2 Studying selection-the difference between use and availability -- 11.2.3 Quantifying food niche breadth and diet overlap -- 11.3 Using stable isotopes to infer trophic interactions.
11.4 Estimating non-lethal effects of predation -- 11.5 Some further challenges -- 12. Reproductive biology and endocrine studies -- Cheryl S. Asa -- 12.1 Carnivore reproductive physiology: the basics -- 12.1.1 Puberty -- 12.1.2 Seasonal reproduction -- 12.2 Stages of the female reproductive cycle -- 12.2.1 Pregnancy -- 12.2.2 Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause -- 12.2.3 Seasonal and lactational anovulation -- 12.2.4 Frequency of ovarian cycles -- 12.3 The endocrinology of stress -- 12.4 Endocrine studies and sampling strategies -- 12.5 Sample collection -- 12.5.1 Blood -- 12.5.2 Urine -- 12.5.3 Feces -- 12.5.4 Saliva -- 12.5.5 Hair -- 12.6 Non-endocrine techniques for studying reproduction -- 12.6.1 Males -- 12.6.2 Females -- 12.7 Gamete preservation and assisted reproduction -- 12.8 Control of reproduction -- 13. Investigating cause-specific mortality and diseases in carnivores: tools and techniques -- Greta M. Wengert, Mourad W. Gabriel, and Deana L. Clifford -- 13.1 Determining causes of mortality in carnivores -- 13.1.1 Locating dead animals to determine cause-specific mortality -- 13.1.2 Handling dead animals and important precautions -- 13.1.3 Field-data collection at mortality sites -- 13.1.4 The clinical necropsy -- 13.1.5 When clinical necropsies just aren't feasible-a quick guide to field necropsy -- 13.1.6 Field and laboratory investigation of intraguild predation -- 13.2 Studying disease and pathogen cycles in carnivores -- 13.2.1 Detection of disease, infection, and pathogen exposure -- 13.2.2 Epizootiology in carnivore populations -- 13.2.3 Modeling techniques in disease ecology -- 13.3 Prevention and control of disease -- 13.3.1 Intervention options: removing the causative factor -- 13.3.2 Intervention options: manipulating the host population.
Note Print version record.
ISBN 9780191625336 (electronic bk.)
0191625337 (electronic bk.)
1280595205
9781280595202
9780199558537
0199558531
0199558523
9780199558520
ISBN/ISSN 9786613625038
99948600085
OCLC # 777199762
Additional Format Print version: Carnivore ecology and conservation. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012 9780199558537 (OCoLC)751831978