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Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System -- See Renin-Angiotensin System A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Renin Angiotensin System -- See Also Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Repetitive Sequences Nucleic Acid -- See Also Multigene Family A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Replacement Therapy Estrogen -- See Estrogen Replacement Therapy The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Replantation Methods : Extremity replantation : a comprehensive clinical guide / A. Neil Salyapongse, Samuel O. Poore, Ahmed M. Afifi, Michael L. Bentz, editors.
Replicative Senescence -- See Cellular Senescence Process by which cells irreversibly stop dividing and enter a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing CELL DEATH. Senescence can be induced by DNA DAMAGE or other cellular stresses, such as OXIDATIVE STRESS.
Report -- See Research Report Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Report Writing : A beginner's guide to critical thinking and writing in health and social care / Helen Aveyard, Pam Sharp and Mary Wooliams.
Reporter Genes -- See Genes, Reporter Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Repressed Memory -- See Repression, Psychology The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
Repression -- See Repression, Psychology The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
Reproducibility Of Finding -- See Reproducibility of Results The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Reproducibility Of Result -- See Reproducibility of Results The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Reproduction Asexual -- See Also Cloning, Organism The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
Reproduction Asexual : Sex in fungi : molecular determination and evolutionary implications / edited by Joseph Heitman, James W. Kronstad, John W. Taylor, Lorna A. Casselton.
Reproduction Asexual Genetics : Clonality : the genetics, ecology, and evolution of sexual abstinence in vertebrate animals / John C. Avise ; with animal illustrations by Trudy Nicholson.
Reproduction Drug Effects : Endocrine disruption : biological basis for health effects in wildlife and humans / David O. Norris and James A. Carr.