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Author Hoyt, Kendall, 1971-
Title Long shot : vaccines for national defense / Kendall Hoyt.
Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 2012.

Author Hoyt, Kendall, 1971-
Subject Vaccination -- United States.
Vaccines -- Government policy -- United States.
Biological weapons -- United States -- Safety measures -- Government policy.
Vaccines -- United States -- History.
Biological weapons -- United States.
Security systems -- United States.
Vaccines -- history.
Security Measures.
Vaccines -- history. &NC&
History, 20th Century.
Biological Warfare Agents.
History, 20th Century.
Vaccines -- history.
Biological Warfare Agents.
Security Measures.
United States.
United States.
Description 1 online resource (xi, 300 pages) : illustrations
polychrome rdacc
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Disease, security, and vaccines -- Historical patterns of vaccine innovation -- Vaccine development during World War II -- Wartime legacies -- The end of an era -- Biodefense in the 21st century -- The search for sustainable solutions.
Summary At the turn of the twenty-first century, the United States contended with a state-run biological warfare program, bioterrorism, and a pandemic. Together, these threats spurred large-scale government demand for new vaccines, but few have materialized. A new anthrax vaccine has been a priority since the first Gulf War, but twenty years and a billion dollars later, the United States still does not have one. This failure is startling. Historically, the United States has excelled at responding to national health emergencies. World War II era programs developed ten new or improved vaccines, often in time to meet the objectives of particular military missions. Probing the history of vaccine development for factors that foster timely innovation, Kendall Hoyt discovered that vaccine innovation has been falling, not rising, since World War II. This finding is at odds with prevailing theories of market-based innovation and suggests that a collection of nonmarket factors drove mid-century innovation. Ironically, many late-twentieth-century developments that have been celebrated as a boon for innovation--the birth of a biotechnology industry and the rise of specialization and outsourcing--undercut the collaborative networks and research practices that drove successful vaccine projects in the past. Hoyt's timely investigation teaches important lessons for our efforts to rebuild twenty-first-century biodefense capabilities, especially when the financial payback for a particular vaccine is low, but the social returns are high.
Despite large-scale government demand for new vaccines in the past decade, few have materialized. Vaccine innovation has been falling since World War II. Hoyt's timely investigation asks why, and teaches lessons for our efforts to rebuild biodefense capabilities when the financial payback for a vaccine is low but the social returns are high.
Note In English.
Print version record.
ISBN 9780674063150 (electronic bk.)
0674063155 (electronic bk.)
ISBN/ISSN 10.4159/harvard.9780674063150
OCLC # 773265344
Additional Format Print version: Hoyt, Kendall, 1971- Long shot. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 2012 9780674061583 (DLC) 2011026672 (OCoLC)780967302

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