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Author Cook, David (David Alan)
Title Intermediate robot building / David Cook.
Imprint [Berkeley, Calif.] : Apress ; New York : Distributed to the Book trade in the U.S. by Springer-Verlag, 2010.
Edition Second edition.

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View online
Author Cook, David (David Alan)
Series Technology in action
Technology in action series.
Subject Robotics -- Amateurs' manuals.
Robots -- Design and construction -- Amateurs' manuals.
Description 1 online resource (xxxii, 447 pages) : illustrations.
polychrome rdacc
Edition Second edition.
Contents Note continued: Drilling -- Getting the Money Shot -- Enlarging Tight Fits -- Adding a Setscrew to the Coupler Fixture -- Repositioning the Coupler Fixture -- Drilling the Motor-Shaft and LEGO Axle Coupler Holes -- Swapping Drills, Not Coupler Rods -- Add the Finishing Touch: Squaring the Ends -- Examining the Coupler So Far -- ch. 4 Finishing the Solid-Rod Motor Coupler -- Installing the Coupler Setscrew -- Determining the Location for the Coupler Setscrew -- Drilling the Coupler Setscrew Hole -- Tapping the Coupler Setscrew Hole -- Selecting a Bottom-Style Tap -- Comparing to a Taper-Style Tap -- Tapping Tips -- Selecting a Setscrew -- Adding the LEGO Axle -- Summary -- ch. 5 Building a Motor Inside a Wheel -- Encountering Danger: Bent Shafts Ahead -- Driving Properly with Bearings -- Protecting Against Bumps and Falls -- Shifting Against the Coupler, Laterally -- Bending Without Support -- Making a Hub-Adapter Coupler -- Adapting the Motor Shaft's Outer Diameter to the LEGO Wheel's Inner Diameter -- Starting Simply with the Coupler Rod -- Making the Inner and Outer Hub-Adapter Discs -- Choosing a Shape -- Determining the Size -- Choosing the Raw Material -- Cutting the Raw Sheet Down to Size -- Drilling the 1/4-Inch in Diameter Center Hole -- Again, Why Measure Oversize? -- Milling Circles with a Rotary Table -- Drilling Screw Holes in the Discs -- Finishing the Inner and Outer Hub-Adapter Discs -- Coring the LEGO Hubs -- Securing the Hub During Machining -- Selecting a Silver & Deming Drill -- Drilling Out the Center of the Hub -- Sanding Away the Remains of the Center of the Hub -- Fitting and Gluing the Parts Together -- Fitting and Gluing the Outer Disc into the Hub -- Fitting and Gluing the Inner Disc onto the Rod -- Waiting for Glue to Dry -- Summary -- ch. 6 Understanding the Standards and Setup for Electronic Experiments.
Note continued: Reading Schematics -- Connecting Wires -- Designating Parts -- Lettering Designations -- Numbering Designations -- Labeling Parts -- Labeling Resistors -- Labeling Capacitors -- Labeling LEDs and IEDs -- Labeling Other Parts -- Specifying Power Supply -- Simplifying the Positive Voltage Supply Label -- Symbolizing Ground and Simplifying Wiring -- Using Solderless Breadboards -- Selecting a Solderless Breadboard -- Setting Up a Solderless Breadboard to Match the Photographs -- Powering a Solderless Breadboard -- Selecting an AC Power Adapter -- Adding a Few Amenities -- Understanding Oscilloscope Traces -- Riding the Bandwagon of Modern Electronics -- Getting Past the Learning Curve Barrier -- Avoiding Obsolete Technology -- Using Surface-Mount Components -- Sizing Down Surface-Mount -- Saying "Good-Bye" to Through-Hole -- Working with Surface-Mount Components -- Converting Surface-Mount Components to Through-Hole -- Mixing and Matching Package Technologies -- Shrinking Below Hand-Labor Level -- Summary -- ch. 7 Creating a Linear Voltage- Regulated Power Supply -- Understanding Voltage Regulators -- Understanding Linear Voltage-Regulated Power Supplies -- 7805 Linear Voltage Regulator -- Introducing a 7805-Based 5 V Power Supply -- Building the 7805-Based Power Supply -- Improving the Power Supply by Reducing the Minimum Required Unregulated Voltage -- Substituting an LM2940, MCP1702, or LP2954 for the 7805 -- Substituting a Power MOSFET for the 1N5817 -- Increasing Resistance at Lower Voltages -- Selecting a Low-Resistance P-Channel Power MOSFET -- Analyzing the Minimum Input Voltage of Various Linear Regulator Circuits -- Presenting the Input/Output Voltage Results of Three 5 V Linear Voltage Regulators -- Considering Various Factors in Linear Voltage Regulators -- Protecting Against a Reverse Battery.
Note continued: Protecting Against Short Circuits -- Protecting Against Thermal Overload -- Simplicity and Low Cost of a Complete Circuit -- Consuming Quiescent Current -- Isolating Power and Noise -- Selecting a Linear Voltage Regulator for Your Robot -- Changing Marketplace Is Limiting 5 V Linear Regulator Selection -- Heading into Optimizations -- ch. 8 Making Robot Power Supply Improvements -- Bulking Up the Input and Output Capacitors -- Increasing Battery Lifetime with Bulk Capacitors -- Delayed Power-Off Because of Bulk Capacitors -- Using a DPDT Power Switch to Reduce Turn-Off Time -- Selecting Bulk Capacitors -- Implementing Higher Margins of Safety for Tantalum Capacitors -- Adding Voodoo Capacitors -- Sprinkling with Bypass/Decoupling Capacitors -- Bypassing the Long Path to the Power Supply -- Decoupling Noise at Each Source -- Selecting Bypass/Decoupling Capacitors -- Preventing Damage from Short Circuits or Overcurrent -- Deciding If Overcurrent Protection is Required -- Protecting with a Fuse -- Protecting with a Manually Reset Circuit Breaker -- Protecting Robots from Short Circuits and Overcurrents with a Solid-State Auto-Resetting PPTC Device -- Greatly Increasing Resistance to Greatly Reduce Current -- Installing PPTC Overcurrent-Protection Devices -- Selecting PPTC Overcurrent-Protection Devices -- Preventing Damage from Overvoltage in a Regulated Circuit -- Introducing the Zener Diode -- Using a Zener Diode to Short Circuit Power Upon Overvoltage -- Tripping Overcurrent Protection with the Overvoltage Short Circuit -- Taking One for the Team: The Sacrificial Death of Mr. Zener -- Choosing an Appropriate Breakdown Voltage -- Purchasing Zener Diodes -- Putting It All Together for a Robust Robot Power Supply -- ch. 9 Driving Miss Motor -- Why a Motor Driver? -- Running Motors at Higher Voltages Than Logic Chips Can Provide.
Note continued: Supplying More Current to Motors Than Logic Chips Can Provide -- Causing Logic Errors with Motor Noise -- Supplying Motor Power from Unregulated vs. Regulated Power -- Demonstrating the Four Modes of a Motor -- Rotating Clockwise -- Rotating Counterclockwise -- Rotating Freely/Coasting (Slow Decay) -- Braking/Stopping (Fast Decay) -- Using Up More Energy -- Braking by Fast Decay -- Driving Simply with a Single Transistor -- Introducing the NPN Bipolar Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Switching with a Transistor -- Using Transistors As Off/On Switches, Not Amplifiers, in Motor-Driver Circuits -- Limiting Base Current with a Resistor -- Protecting the Transistor with a Diode -- Implementing the NPN Bipolar Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Introducing the PNP Bipolar Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Implementing the PNP Bipolar Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Putting the NPN and PNP Motor Drivers Together -- Implementing the Combination NPN and PNP Motor-Driver Circuit -- Avoiding a Short Circuit -- Classic Bipolar H-Bridge -- Spinning Clockwise with an H-Bridge -- Spinning Counterclockwise with an H-Bridge -- Slowing Down with an H-Bridge Electronic Brake -- Braking High -- Coasting with an H-Bridge -- Enumerating the Other H-Bridge Combinations -- Implementing the Classic Bipolar H-Bridge -- Interfacing with the High Side -- Avoiding an Interface by Not Regulating the Logic Chips -- Avoiding an Interface by Regulating the H-Bridge -- Interfacing a PNP via an NPN -- Flipping the Switch -- Selecting a Resistor Value for R5 -- Specifying the Voltage Range for the Bipolar Motor-Driver Circuits -- Implementing a PNP Single-Transistor Bipolar Motor Driver with an NPN Interface -- Finishing the Bipolar H-Bridge -- Using an Interface Chip -- Choosing the 4427 -- Interfacing the 4427 to the H-Bridge.
Note continued: Selecting the 4427 or a Close Family Member -- Mastering Motor Control -- ch. 10 Driving Mister Motor -- Driving Motors with MOSFETs -- Introducing the N-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Controlling the Transistor Switch with Voltage, Not Current -- Always Connecting the Gate of a MOSFET -- Implementing the N-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Providing a Default Input Value with a Resistor -- Setting the Input High by Default with a Pull-Up Resistor -- Setting the Input Low by Default with a Pull-Down Resistor -- Choosing a Value for a Pull-Up or Pull-Down Resistor -- Choosing Between No Resistor, a Pull-Up Resistor, or a Pull-Down Resistor -- Revising the N-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit to Include a Pull-Down Resistor -- Implementing the N-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit with a Pull-Down Resistor -- Introducing the P-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Implementing the P-Channel Power MOSFET Single-Transistor Motor-Driver Circuit -- Introducing the Power MOSFET H-Bridge -- Adding Schottky Diodes Is Optional but Recommended -- Implementing the Power MOSFET H-Bridge -- Interfacing to a Power MOSFET H-Bridge -- Selecting Power MOSFETs -- Reducing Switch Resistance Is Desirable -- Recognizing That MOSFETs Have Resistance -- Heating Up Increases a MOSFET's Resistance -- Paralleling MOSFETs Decreases Resistance -- Contrasting Parallel MOSFET Transistors with Parallel Bipolar Transistors -- Driving Motors with Chips -- Dreaming of the Ideal -- Using the 4427-Family As a Stand-Alone Motor Driver -- Getting the Classic Bipolar H-Bridge on a Chip -- Introducing the MC33887: A Feature-Rich MOSFET H-Bridge Motor Driver -- Understanding the Pins -- Implementing the MC33887 H-Bridge Motor Driver -- Sensing Motor Current.
Note continued: Evaluating Motor Drivers -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Power Delivery -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Voltage Output with a Very Light Load -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Voltage Output with a Moderate Load -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Efficiency -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Efficiency with a Very Light Load -- Evaluating Motor-Driver Efficiency with a Moderate Load -- Summary -- ch. 11 Creating an Infrared Modulated Obstacle, Opponent, and Wall Detector -- Detecting Modulated Infrared with a Popular Module, or, Another Reason to Hog the Remote Control -- Introducing the Panasonic PNA4602M Photo IC -- Hooking Up the PNA4602M Photo IC -- Testing the PNA4602M Photo IC -- Looking Closely at the Modulated Signal -- Looking Even More Closely to See the Detection Delay -- Expanding the Detection Circuit to Include an LED Indicator -- Adding a 74AC14 Inverter Chip to Drive the LED -- Examining the Indicator Circuit -- Cleaning the Power Supply with Local Capacitors -- Powering the LED with an Advanced CMOS Logic Chip -- Showing Both Detect and No-Detect States with a Bicolor LED -- Completing the Reflector Detector Circuit -- Examining the Complete Reflector Detector Schematic -- Generating the 38 kHz Wave -- Emitting the 38 kHz Wave -- Implementing the 38 kHz Reflector Detector on a Solderless Breadboard -- Selecting an Infrared LED for the PNA4602M -- Purchasing an Appropriate Infrared LED -- Selecting Trimpots for R7 and R6 -- Selecting Capacitors -- Making It Work -- ch. 12 Fine-Tuning the Reflector Detector -- Tuning In 38 kHz -- Selecting Halfway Between the Start of Detection and End of Detection -- Never Indicating Detection Suggests Something Is Wrong with the Emitters -- Always Indicating Detection Suggests Signal Leakage -- Using a Multimeter with Frequency Detection -- Using an Oscilloscope -- Revealing the Purpose of a Schmitt-Trigger Inverter.
Note continued: Diagnosing Problems Encountered in Circuit Tuning -- Targeting Reasonable Frequency Accuracy -- Stretching for Unreasonable Frequency Accuracy -- Accepting the Limited Accuracy and Stability of the Oscillator Circuit -- Limitations of the Reflector Detector -- Failing to Work Outdoors or Under Bright Lights -- Failing to Detect Certain Kinds of Objects -- Failing to Detect Objects Far Away or Really, Really Close -- Comparing Your Distances to Mine -- Analyzing the Distance Results -- Failing to Provide a Range Value -- Getting Ready for a Practical Robot Application -- ch. 13 Roundabout Robot! -- Examining Roundabout -- Viewing Roundabout from the Sides -- Viewing Roundabout from Above and Beneath -- Roundabout's Circuitry -- Supplying Power -- Controlling Direction with Simple Logic -- Turning Left and Turning Right -- Gradually Heading Left and Gradually Heading Right -- Avoiding Infrared Leaks -- Building Roundabout's Body -- Declaring Caveats Because of Gearmotor Availability -- Using Precision Escap Gearmotors in Roundabout -- Leaning Toward Particular Attributes -- Designing a Robot Body -- Creating a Template -- Printing a Template -- Attaching a Template -- Squaring the Template with the Workpiece -- Punching Holes for Better Centering -- Removing Tape Before Machining Sides -- Constructing the Center Platform of Roundabout -- Milling or Purchasing a Disc -- Placing and Tapping Screw Holes in Roundabout's Center Platform -- Examining Roundabout's Motor Mechanism -- Using Matching Rectangular Motor Mounts -- Choosing Between Friction-Fit Motors and Using Mounting Screws -- Mounting Motors with Screws -- Connecting to LEGO Gears and Wheels -- Selecting LEGO Gears -- Centering Wheels with Idler Gears -- Slowing Down the Speed and Increasing the Torque -- Increasing Speed in Exchange for Torque.
Note continued: Altering Speed and Torque with Pulleys Instead of Gears -- Reaching the Physical Limits of LEGO Moving Parts -- Making Roundabout's Motor Mounts -- Defining Motor-Mount Dimensions -- Preparing the Raw Material -- Selecting Ready-Made Material Instead of Milling -- Drilling All of the Motor Mounts at the Same Time -- Making Holes to Secure the Motor Mounts to the Center Platform -- Revealing the Finished Motor Mounts -- Summarizing Roundabout -- ch. 14 Test Driving Roundabout -- Preparing for the Test Drive -- Setting All Controls to Safe or Moderate Positions -- Testing One Module at a Time -- Measuring the Resistance of the Complete Circuit -- Draining Power -- Measuring Resistance -- Getting Too Low of a Resistance -- Getting Too High of a Resistance -- Placing the Robot on Blocks -- Checking Battery Voltage and Polarity -- Watching Current Usage During Power-Up -- Preparing the Robot and Correcting Minor Glitches -- Fine-Tuning the Infrared Reflector Detector -- Flipping Bicolor LEDs -- Testing the Sensors -- Mixing Up Motor Connections -- Evaluating Roundabout's Performance -- Encountering Problems with the Test Drive -- Encountering a Reversing Robot -- Encountering a Stalling Robot -- Encountering a Slow-Motion Robot -- Encountering a Speeding Robot -- Encountering a Rotating Robot -- Exercising All of the Robot's Maneuvers -- Challenging Roundabout -- Avoiding Toilet Paper Alley -- Switching to Blocks of Wood -- Ringing Around the Robot -- Getting Stuck -- Evaluating a Drunkard's Walk -- Evaluating Roundabout's Walk -- Reducing Detection Ambiguity -- Attempting to Use a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit -- Attempting to Use High-Beam Hysteresis -- Rerouting Signals and Controls with a Multipin Header -- Running Out of Simple Ideas -- ch. 15 If I Only Had a Brain -- Considering the Atmel ATtiny84 Microcontroller As an Example.
Note continued: Comparing a Microcontroller to a Logic Chip -- Choosing a Logic Chip Over a Microcontroller -- Choosing a Microcontroller Over a Logic Chip -- Programming a Microcontroller -- Storing Programs -- Sizing Up Program Storage -- Wriking Programs -- Working Without a.NET -- Compiling and Downloading the Program -- Debugging the Program -- Lighting Up an LED -- Changing a Pin -- Creating a Heartbeat -- Driving a Display -- Exploring Common Microcontroller Features -- Microcontroller Packages -- Microcontroller Pins -- Input Pins -- Output Pins -- Microcontroller Memory -- Nonvolatile Memory -- Supplementing with External Nonvolatile Memory -- Volatile Memory -- Microcontroller Instruction Size -- Microcontroller Instruction Complexity -- Microcontroller Speed -- Comparing Clock Speed -- Generating a Clock Signal -- Using the Clock As a Timer -- Special Watchdogs -- Low-Voltage Watchdog -- Choosing a Microcontroller -- Running Out Of -- Recommending Atmel AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers -- Recommending the Parallax BASIC Stamp -- Asking Around -- Graduating Your Robot -- ch. 16 Building Roundabout's Daughterboard -- Converting to a Two-Story Configuration -- Connecting to the DIP Socket -- Using Machine-Pin Sockets and Headers -- Securing the Daughterboard to the Motherboard -- Soldering the Headers -- Soldering the New DIP Socket -- Difficulty Accessing the Motherboard -- Relocating the Power Switch -- Perilously Stacking Sockets -- Shading the Infrared Reflector Detectors -- Intercepting Signals: Meeting the New Boss -- Retaining Valuable Functions -- Rerouting the Infrared Detection Signals -- Catching and Disrupting the Stalled State -- Rerouting the Motor and Bipolar Controls -- Producing (Almost) Complete Control -- Expanding Functionality -- Examining the Microcontroller Pins -- Powering the Microcontroller.
Note continued: Detecting Walls and Obstacles -- Controlling the Motors and Bipolar LEDs -- Controlling the Bipolar LEDs -- Reading the Push Button -- Debouncing an Input -- Adding the Push Button to the Daughterboard -- Providing Options with a DIP Switch -- Debouncing Through Software -- Avoiding Intermittent Switch Changes -- Making Music -- Remaining Pins Available for Expansion -- Communicating with Other Modules or a Computer -- Upgrading a Robot -- ch. 17 Adding the Floor Sensor Module -- Sensing Brightness with Photoresistors -- Converting Varying Resistance into Varying Voltage Through a Voltage Divider -- Selecting a Voltage for the Voltage Divider -- Selecting a Resistor for the Voltage Divider -- Staying Below the Maximum Power Dissipation Rating of the Photoresistor -- Photoresistor Response is Nonlinear -- Graphing the Response of a Specific Photoresistor -- Calculating Sensitivity -- Calculating Any Resistance for a Given Illuminance -- Recognizing Inconsistency Between Photoresistors -- Testing Variance -- Rising and Falling Resistance Speeds -- Reusing the Balanced Brightness-Sensing Circuit -- Sensing Brightness with a Photodiode IC -- Presenting the Floor Reflectivity Circuit -- Implementing the Floor Reflectivity Circuit -- Cutting Out a Semicircular Breadboard -- Baffling the Board -- Putting on a Black Skirt -- Gutting a LEGO Brick -- Tuning and Testing the Floor Reflectivity Circuit -- Tuning Just Below 5 V on a Maximally Reflective Surface -- Testing on a Minimally Reflective Surface -- Following a Line -- Autodetection of Line Brightness -- Reading Floor Sensor Values -- Inverting Sensor Values -- Following the Dark Line -- Centering Over the Dark Line -- Improving the Line-Following Algorithm -- Competing in Robot Sumo -- Entering Roundabout in Robot Sumo -- Strategizing with DIP Switch Settings -- Expanding Possibilities.
Note continued: ch. 18 Cooking Up Some Robot Stew -- Making Music -- Presenting the Audio Circuit -- Implementing the Audio Circuit -- Turning the Volume -- Listening to Binary -- Boosting Loudness -- Driving a Speaker -- Selecting a Speaker -- Choosing an Audio Amplifier Chip Instead of a Simple Transistor -- Seeing Sound -- Playing a Note -- Playing a Tune -- Playing Tunes Simultaneous to Robot Action -- Scaling Up -- Creating a Double Platform -- Sliding Around -- Providing Greater Headroom with Homemade Spacers -- Wheel Slots -- Supporting Both Ends of the Axle -- Mounting Motors -- Mounting with Angle Stock -- Purchasing Aluminum Angle Stock -- Preparing the Proper Lengths -- Drilling Holes with a Template -- Purposely Incorporating Wiggle Room by Drilling Unthreaded Oversized Holes -- Saving Space with Right Angle Gearing -- Notching and Grooving -- Inserting Wheel Axles -- Reducing Friction -- Placing the Drive Train into the Robot's Body -- Adapting a Small-Diameter Motor Shaft and Integrated Mount for LEGO Compatibility -- Altering the Gearmotor Shaft -- Grinding the Shaft -- Adding Tubing -- Attaching the Motor with a Peg-Based Mount -- Roaming the Solar Terrain -- Selecting Wheels for a Smooth Ride -- Detecting Obstacles -- Looking for Light and Sensing Shadows -- Feeling Around with Whisker Sensors -- Using Spring Tubing -- Lever Switches -- Standing in a Robot's Shoes for a While -- Adding a Wireless Video Camera to Any Existing Robot -- Exploring with Wireless Video -- Exploring Yourself with Wireless Video -- Thank You.
Summary Intermediate Robot Building, Second Edition offers the kind of real-world knowledge that only an experienced robot builder can offer-the kind that other beginners only learn through making mistakes. In this book, you'll learn the value of a robot heartbeat and the purpose of the wavy lines in photocells. You'll find out a superior way to follow lines and what electronic part you should sand. You'll discover how a well-placed switch can help a robot avoid obstacies better than a pair of feelers. And, you'll learn about how to avoid causing a capacitor to explode.
Want a robot that can explore rooms, follow lines, or battle opponents without remote control? This book presents step-by-step instructions with a heavy emphasis on photographs, as well as circuit and part descriptions so that you can build the robot featured in this book. The chapters focus on standalone modules that can either be brought together to make a complete robot, or substituted into your own independent designs. It's completely your choice.
You'll use many of the same techniques used by professional robotics engineers-and you'll experience many of the same challenges and joys they feel when your robot "comes to life". This book is perfect for loyal readers of my first book, Robot Building For Beginners, as well as for backyard scientists that have already taught themselves the basics. Enjoy! --Book Jacket.
Note Print version record.
ISBN 9781430227540 (pbk.)
1430227540 (pbk.)
9781430227557 (ebk.)
1430227559 (ebk.)
ISBN/ISSN 10.1007/978-1-4302-2755-7
OCLC # 668097682
Additional Format Print version: Cook, David (David Alan). Intermediate robot building. 2nd ed. [Berkeley, Calif.] : Apress ; New York : Distributed to the Book trade in the U.S. by Springer-Verlag, 2010 9781430227540 1430227540 (OCoLC)449843479