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Author Shorrocks, Victor M.,
Title Conventional and organic farming : a comprehensive review through the lens of agricultural science / Victor M. Shorrocks.
Imprint Sheffield (England) : Old Pond Publishing, 2017.

Author Shorrocks, Victor M.,
Subject Organic farming.
Description 1 online resource (xvii, 574 pages) : color illustrations
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references and index.
Summary Organic farming comes with many connotations of 'natural', 'wholesome', 'healthy', 'superior', 'environmentally friendly', and 'sustainable'. But just what is the scientific evidence behind the claims of healthier food and better farming systems made by the organic movement? Using peer reviewed literature, the latest studies, and a rigorous investigation of claims made by opponents of conventional farming, the author provides an even handed and scientifically objective review of the contributions of organic farming to human health, crop yields, the environment, and agriculture from a global perspective. The aim is to separate out the marketing spin, the claims of one camp or another, and political ideologies to provide a straightforward appraisal of both the benefits and exaggerated claims of organic farming. The approach taken is to present the evidence in the form of data, study results, and presentation of source material for the claims made by conventional and organic, and leave the reader to make their own judgements on the validity of the case for organic over conventional farming. The book also addresses a fundamental question in modern farming - organic agriculture's ability to feed the world in the face of a growing population and growing demand for meat. It provides a timely scientific comparison of the practices, relative yields, and benefits of organic versus conventional agriculture. The ways conventional farming has progressed from hunter gatherer days and possible future developments are discussed. Conventional and Organic Farming will be an ideal book for agricultural policy makers, researchers and academics, as well as agricultural students, conventional, and organic farmers. [Subject: Farm Studies, Agriculture Studies, Agricultural Policy].
Contents Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Origin of Farming and the Historical Appreciation of the Value of Manure and Legumes -- Domestication of animals and crops 10,000-8,000 BC -- Hunter-gatherers and a natural way of life -- Appreciation of the value of manure and legumes -- Summary -- References -- ch. 2 Fertilizer and Pesticide Roads -- from Manure to Man-Made Fertilizers and from Sulphur to Synthetics -- From Romans to the printing press (1476) -- Before agricultural chemistry (1477-1800) -- Agricultural chemistry from 1800 -- Early soil amendments -- Birth of the modern fertilizer industry -- Fertilizers -- the end of the road -- pesticide road from sulphur to synthetics -- Summary -- References -- ch. 3 Social and Agricultural Scene in 1920s and 1930s -- Social, political and economic background -- Agricultural background -- Public health -- Summary -- References -- ch. 4 Organic Farming -- Principles, Promotion and Perceptions -- Lord Northbourne -- Farmers and growers -- Biodynamic and mainstream organic farming -- International and national agencies -- Non-governmental bodies -- Promotion by mainstream organic groups -- Public perceptions and the reasons for choosing organic food -- Perceptions, labelling and promotion of organic food in the USA -- Reasons for farming organically -- Detecting organic fraud -- Summary -- References -- ch. 5 Biodynamic Agriculture -- Key Aspects and Development -- Dislike of modern agriculture -- Investigation of Steiner's ideas by the Koliskos -- nine biodynamic preparations -- Promotion and extension of Steiner's ideas by Pfeiffer -- Control of weeds, insects, disease and mice -- Influence of the Moon on plant growth -- Biodynamic research -- Genetic engineering and nanotechnology -- Influence of biodynamic agriculture on the origin of the mainstream organic movement -- Summary -- References -- ch. 6 Origin and Development of Mainstream Organic Movements -- Eve Balfour (1898-1990) -- Haughley Research Farms (1940) -- Living Soil (Balfour 1943) -- Soil Association (1946) -- Reaction to The Living Soil and the Soil Association -- Haughley Experiment (1945-1969) -- Results -- Organic associations in English-speaking countries -- Organic associations in other countries -- Summary -- References -- ch. 7 Organic Areas, Crops and Markets Across the World -- Areas of organic crops -- Main organic crops and areas -- Africa -- Asia -- Europe -- North America -- Latin America -- Oceania -- Biodynamic crops and farms -- Mainstream organic markets -- Summary -- References -- ch. 8 Regulation and Certification of Organic Farming -- Biodynamic farming -- Development of mainstream organic standards -- Mainstream organic farming regulations -- IFOAM norms for organic agricultural production -- Organic equivalence arrangements -- Non-food crops and products -- Summary -- References -- ch. 9 Organic Farming and Health -- the Pioneers -- Soil, organic farming methods, diet and health -- Pioneers, Howard, Sykes, McCarrison, Wrench, Price and John Boyd-Orr -- Medical Testament of the Cheshire doctors (1939) -- Huntingdon feeding experiment -- Submission to UK Parliament -- Summary -- References -- ch. 10 Organic Farming and Health -- Studies and Concerns -- Human health studies -- Human health concerns -- Research on potential effects of organic food on human health -- Health of farmers -- Summary -- References -- ch. 11 Soil Organic Matter, Relevance and Benefits -- Appreciation of soil organic matter -- Organic matter in soils -- Importance and benefits of soil organic matter -- How to maintain and increase soil organic matter levels -- Soil organic matter and EU legislation -- Summary -- References -- ch. 12 Manures and Slurries -- Composition, Production and Application -- Nutrient composition of manure -- Production and recovery of manure -- Application of manure: amounts, method and timing -- Sewage sludge -- Summary -- References -- ch. 13 Comparison of Yields of Organic and Conventionally Grown Crops -- Haughley Experiment -- Comparison of organic and conventional yields where the nutrient inputs are known -- Comparison of yields of organic and conventionally grown crops -- USA: comparison of organic and conventional yields in 2008 and 2011 -- Some implications of conversion to organic -- Nutrient sources for organic farms -- Summary -- References -- ch. 14 Composition of Organic and Conventionally Grown Crops -- Health Implications -- Plant composition -- secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds -- Toxic effects of bioactive compounds -- Bioactive compounds in organic and conventional crops: meta-analyses -- Cadmium and heavy metals -- Relevance of the varying composition of crops associated with farming system -- Phytoalexins and their occurrence -- Examples of phytoalexins according to plant family -- Phytoalexins in organic produce and in misshapen fruit and vegetables -- grapefruit effect and possible parsnip effect -- Phytoalexins in the wild ancestors of crops -- Summary -- References -- ch. 15 Pesticides -- The Fear and the Problems -- Synthetic pesticides -- Hidden costs of pesticides -- Rachel Carson -- Cocktails of pesticide residues -- Cancer -- Phytoalexins (natural pesticides) in the diet -- Pesticides used by organic farmers -- Regulation of synthetic pesticides and pesticide residues -- Toxicological studies on rodents -- Toxicological assessments of coffee and wine -- Hormesis -- Carcinogenic pharmaceuticals -- Hazard and risk -- Summary -- References -- ch. 16 Human Requirement for Nitrogen and Where it Comes From with a note on Phosphorus and Potassium -- Nitrogen and man -- Nitrogen: where it comes from -- Recovery and utilization of N in crops -- Utilization of biologically fixed N -- Equating fertilizer N with biological fixation of N by forage legumes and soybeans -- Phosphorus and potassium -- Summary -- References -- ch. 17 Behaviour of Nitrogen in the Soil and Environment and the Contribution of Nitrous Oxide and Methane to Greenhouse Gases -- Supply of absorbable nitrogen -- Reactive nitrogen -- Recovery of nitrogen from fertilizers and organic materials -- Greenhouse gas emissions associated with agriculture -- Environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming -- Summary -- References -- ch. 18 Sustaining Food Production -- Problems of Population, Subsistence Farming and Sustainability -- Current situation -- Population, farm sizes and numbers -- Price of food -- Sustainability -- Sustainability and ability of organic farming to feed the world -- Planetary boundaries for mankind -- Summary -- References -- ch. 19 Sustaining Food Production -- Supply of Animal Protein, the Nitrogen Problem, Lessons of Organic Farming and Importance of Technology and Innovation -- Supply of animal protein -- nitrogen problem and greenhouse gas emissions -- Lessons of organic farming -- Importance of technology and innovation -- Summary -- References -- ch. 20 Sustaining Food Production -- Basic Constraints and Potential of Plant Breeding and Mycorrhiza -- Nutrient supply -- Basic constraints to plant growth -- Plant breeding and genetic engineering -- Mycorrhiza -- Bacteria in the rhizosphere -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 5. Rudolf Steiner Agricultural Course (1924) -- Chapter 6. Founder and early members of Soil Association -- Chapter 12. Manures and slurries, composition -- Chapter 14. Benefits of fruit and vegetables and supplementation with dietary antioxidants -- Chapter 15. LD50 and HERP -- Chapter 16. Nitrogen use efficiency -- Chapter 17. Greenhouse gas emissions by country -- Organic products.
Note Description based on print version record.
ISBN 9781912178742 (electronic bk.)
1912178745 (electronic bk.)
9781910455999 (print)
1910455997 (print)
OCLC # 1020318957
Additional Format Print version: Shorrocks, Victor M. Conventional and organic farming. Sheffield (England) : Old Pond Publishing, 2017 1910455997 9781910455999 (OCoLC)1004760071

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