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Author Lewis, Martin W.
Title Wagering the land : ritual, capital, and environmental degradation in the Cordillera of northern Luzon, 1900-1986 / Martin W. Lewis.
Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, 1992.

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Author Lewis, Martin W.
Subject Nature -- Effect of human beings on -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Agricultural ecology -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Tropical vegetable industry -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Agriculture -- Social aspects -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Rites and ceremonies -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Buguias (Philippines) -- Politics and government.
Buguias (Philippines) -- Religious life and customs.
Environmental degradation -- Philippines -- Buguias.
Description 1 online resource (xii, 280 pages) : illustrations, maps
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references (pages 263-274) and index.
Note Print version record.
Contents 1. Introduction. Commercialization and Local Change. Identifying Buguias in the Ethnographic Landscape. Overview -- pt. 1. Prewar Buguias. 2. Food, Fuel, and Fiber: Human Environmental. Relations in Prewar Buguias. Agricultural Fields. Animal Husbandry. The Harvest of Uncultivated Lands. Vegetational Change and Agricultural Intensification. 3. Social Relations: Power and Labor. The Commoners. The Elite and Their Servants. Social Mobility. Land Tenure. 4. Religion: The Role of the Ancestors. Gods and Spirits. Prestige Feasts in Prewar Buguias. Status Display. The Ideology of Ritual Performance. 5. Commercial and Political Relations. Trade Relations. The Organization of Trade. Local Specialization of Production. The Prewar Vegetable Industry. Imperial Power. Colonial Visions. Interregnum: The War -- pt. 2. Vitality and Vulnerability: Fluctuations in the Postwar Economy, 1946-1986. 6. The Establishment of Commercial Vegetable Agriculture. Postwar Adjustments. The Ecology of Early Vegetable Production in Buguias. Continuing Agricultural Development. Crops and Field Types. Strategies in Vegetable Farming. The Spatial Reorganization of Exchange. 7. The Sociology and Economics of Vegetable Production, 1946-1972. Restructured Social Relations. Capital and Labor. The Vegetable Trade. 8. Economic and Ecological Crisis. Boom, Bust, and Readjustment. Demography. Deforestation. Water Shortages, Erosion, and Biocides. The Vegetable Frontier. 9. Social Conflict and Political Struggle. Land Conflicts. The Rise of Youth Culture. Contemporary Politics. 10. Religion in Modern Buguias. The "Buguias Paganism System" Christian Challenge and Pagan Response. The Geography of Religion. Religious Plurality in Present-day Buguias. 11. Conclusion: Understanding Buguias's Aberrant Development. The Ideology of Pagan Economics. Ritual Economics and the Social Order. Ritual Survival, Ecological Devastation.
Summary "Why do market farmers in the rugged northern Philippine highlands stage ever more costly, elaborate ritual feasts so that their ancestors will shower success on ever more costly, ecologically risky farming ventures? Because the commercialization of agriculture in the area surrounding Buguias has resulted in a unique blend of new and old economic, environmental, and religious practices. Wagering the Land documents clearly the ecological degradation commonly associated with "modern" farming methods: deforestation, soil erosion, pesticide contamination, and wildlife extermination. But the breakdown of communal bonds and local beliefs also associated with modernization in most theories of rural development simply has not happened. On the contrary, traditional beliefs, and especially the redistributive prestige feasts that figure largely in the indigenous religion (called Paganism by both its adherents and its adversaries), have flourished." "Development of truck gardening in the cool highlands of northern Luzon, an area perfectly suited to the cultivation of temperate vegetables, gained momentum after World War II. Martin Lewis describes engagingly the economic and social life of Buguias and the centrality of religion during the first four decades of this century, the complete destruction of prewar agriculture and animal husbandry in 1944, and the explosion of commercial farming thereafter. Unaccustomed prosperity reinforced the religious practice of lavish communal feasting, which not only honors the dead and bolsters the status of the living but also brings "good luck" to the host farmer's enterprise if the ritual succeeds in placating the ancestors. Heavenly favor thus overshadows sound environmental practices, and the region's inhabitants are quite literally wagering their lands in the hope of gaining prosperity and prestige. Anthropologists and geographers, as well as environmental and development specialists interested in the Third World in general and Southeast Asia in particular, will find important new information and arguments in Lewis's well-researched ethnography."--Jacket.
Note English.
ISBN 0585070431 (electronic bk.)
9780585070438 (electronic bk.)
0520072723 (cloth ; alk. paper)
9780520072725 (cloth ; alk. paper)
OCLC # 42922510
Additional Format Print version: Lewis, Martin W. Wagering the land. Berkeley : University of California Press, 1992 0520072723 (DLC) 91012307 (OCoLC)23355793
Table of Contents
 Illustrations 
 Acknowledgments 
 1Introduction1
   Commercialization and Local Change3
   Identifying Buguias in the Ethnographic Landscape10
   Overview17
Pt. 1Prewar Buguias 
 2Food, Fuel, and Fiber: Human Environmental 
   Relations in Prewar Buguias21
   Agricultural Fields23
   Animal Husbandry30
   The Harvest of Uncultivated Lands34
   Vegetational Change and Agricultural Intensification38
 3Social Relations: Power and Labor45
   The Commoners46
   The Elite and Their Servants49
   Social Mobility52
   Land Tenure54
 4Religion: The Role of the Ancestors59
   Gods and Spirits60
   Prestige Feasts in Prewar Buguias65
   Status Display70
   The Ideology of Ritual Performance73
 5Commercial and Political Relations82
   Trade Relations82
   The Organization of Trade88
   Local Specialization of Production92
   The Prewar Vegetable Industry95
   Imperial Power98
   Colonial Visions103
   Interregnum: The War107
Pt. 2Vitality and Vulnerability: Fluctuations in the Postwar Economy, 1946-1986 
 Introduction115
 6The Establishment of Commercial Vegetable Agriculture117
   Postwar Adjustments118
   The Ecology of Early Vegetable Production in Buguias122
   Continuing Agricultural Development126
   Crops and Field Types129
   Strategies in Vegetable Farming136
   The Spatial Reorganization of Exchange139
 7The Sociology and Economics of Vegetable Production, 1946-1972146
   Restructured Social Relations147
   Capital and Labor150
   The Vegetable Trade155
 8Economic and Ecological Crisis161
   Boom, Bust, and Readjustment163
   Demography171
   Deforestation174
   Water Shortages, Erosion, and Biocides180
   The Vegetable Frontier186
 9Social Conflict and Political Struggle194
   Land Conflicts195
   The Rise of Youth Culture202
   Contemporary Politics204
 10Religion in Modern Buguias213
   The "Buguias Paganism System"213
   Christian Challenge and Pagan Response219
   The Geography of Religion224
   Religious Plurality in Present-day Buguias229
 11Conclusion: Understanding Buguias's Aberrant Development233
   The Ideology of Pagan Economics238
   Ritual Economics and the Social Order242
   Ritual Survival, Ecological Devastation246
 Glossary251
 Notes253
 Bibliography263
 Index275


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