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Author Anisfeld, Shimon C.
Title Water resources / by Shimon C. Anisfeld.
Imprint Washington : Island Press, [2010]

Author Anisfeld, Shimon C.
Series Foundations of contemporary environmental studies
Foundations of contemporary environmental studies.
Subject Watershed management.
Water resources development -- Environmental aspects.
Water-supply -- Social aspects.
Description xviii, 330 pages : illustrations, maps ; 23 cm.
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references (p. 299-315) and index.
Contents Past, present, and future: introduction to the water crisis -- Quantity and quality: introduction to water resource science -- Supply and demand: water availability and water use -- Water, water, everywhere: dealing with floods -- Nor any drop to drink: water scarcity -- The end of stationarity: water in an era of global change -- Soft and hard: technologies for sustainable water management -- Human and ecosystems: finding the right balance -- Overconsumption and underconsumption: water for households and health -- Crops and drops: getting more from less in agricultural water use -- Growth and sustainability: using water more wisely in industry -- Basic need and economic good: the contested role of economics in water management -- Conflict and cooperation: transboundary and intersectoral water management -- Conclusion: the imperative of better management.
ISBN 1597264946 (cloth : alk. paper)
9781597264945 (cloth : alk. paper)
1597264954 (pbk. : alk. paper)
9781597264952 (pbk. : alk. paper)
OCLC # 496964258
Table of Contents
Chapter 1Past, Present, and Future: Introduction to the Water Crisis1
1.1The Past: A Brief History of Water Resource Management2
 The Twentieth Century2
1.2The Present: A Water Crisis5
1.3The Future: An Emerging Approach to Water Management6
1.4Structure of This Book10
Chapter 2Quantity and Quality: Introduction to Water Resource Science11
2.1Following the Hydrologic Cycle11
 Percolation and Groundwater13
2.2Watersheds and Issues of Spatial Scale17
 Watersheds and Water Budgets18
 Nested Watersheds and Stream Size20
 USGS Hydrologic Units and the Problem with Watersheds22
2.3Introduction to Water Quality25
 Types of Pollutants26
 The Clean Water Act and Pollution Permits30
2.4Introduction to Fluvial Geomorphology and Aquatic Ecology32
Chapter 3Supply and Demand: Water Availability and Water Use35
3.1Global Water Resources35
 Stocks and Flows35
 Spatial Variability in Water Availability38
 Water Availability at the Country Scale42
 Temporal Variability in Water Availability45
3.2Water Use47
 Defining Water Use47
 Water Use at the Global Scale50
 Water Use at the Country Scale53
 Water Footprints55
 Water Use in the United States58
Chapter 4Water, Water, Everywhere: Dealing with Floods64
4.1Defming Floods64
4.2Flooding Impacts and Trends68
4.3Flood Management69
 Flood Management Over Time71
 Flood Control in the United States72
 The Future of Flood Management75
Chapter 5Nor Any Drop to Drink: Water Scarcity77
5.1Defining Scarcity77
 Falkenmark Indicator77
 WTA Indicator78
5.2Assessing Water Scarcity at Different Scales79
 Country Scale80
 Grid Scale81
 River Basin Scale83
 Economic Water Scarcity84
5.3Groundwater Overdraft86
 Defining Drought89
 Paleoclimatology and Drought Frequency91
 Drought Management92
Chapter 6The End of Stationarity: Water in an Era of Global Change96
6.1Population Growth and Climate Change96
 Population Growth96
 Climate Change97
 Forecasting the Combined Effects of Climate and Population100
 Climate Change, Droughts, and Floods102
 Climate Change and Coastal Flooding103
6.2Land Use Change104
 Land Use Change and Coastal Flooding108
Chapter 7Soft and Hard: Technologies for Sustainable Water Management113
7.1Large Dams113
 Technical and Financial Performance114
 Dam Safety and Maintenance115
 Ecological Impacts116
 Social Impacts118
 Positions on the Dam Debate118
7.2Small Dams119
 Dam Removal120
7.3Canals and Water Transport122
7.4Virtual Water Trade123
7.6Wastewater Reclamation130
7.7Rainwater Harvesting132
7.8Choosing Appropriate Technology134
Chapter 8Humans and Ecosystems: Finding the Right Balance137
8.1Human Modifications to Aquatic Ecosystems138
8.2Hydrologic Alteration141
 River Flow Regimes143
 Characterizing Hydrologic Alteration144
 Environmental Flow Requirements---Defining the Question146
 Environmental Flow Requirements---Methods149
 The Global Extent of Hydrologic Alteration150
8.3Physical Alteration151
8.4Chemical Degradation: Water Quality152
8.5Biotic Degradation153
8.6The Urban Stream Syndrome153
 Impervious Surfaces154
 Water Quality: Urban Runoff157
 Water Quality: Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs)158
 Biotic Impacts159
 Managing the Urban Stream Syndrome159
8.7Protecting Aquatic Ecosystems: The Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act161
 CWA Water Quality Standards and Assessment161
 Impairments and TMDLs164
 The Status of America's Waters166
 Endangered Species Act167
Chapter 9Overconsumption and Underconsumption: Water for Households and Health170
9.1Water and Health170
9.2Water and Sanitation: The Standard Model in Developed Countries171
 Water Supply174
 Safety of Drinking Water175
 Sanitation and Waste Treatment179
9.3Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries180
 Millennium Development Goals180
 The Burden of Disease182
 Costs and Benefits187
 Reducing Water-Related Disease188
9.4Alternatives for Sanitation190
9.5Natural Contaminants193
9.6Bottled Water196
9.7Household Water Conservation197
 Current Use197
 Tools for Conservation200
Chapter 10Crops and Drops: Getting More from Less in Agricultural Water Use205
10.1Agriculture as a Water User205
10.2The Green Revolution and Its Limits208
10.3Water Productivity211
 Footprints and Efficiency213
10.4Agricultural Pollution218
Chapter 11Growth and Sustainability: Using Water More Wisely in Industry221
11.1Water and Energy222
 Water for Energy: Fossil Fuel Extraction222
 Water for Energy: Thermoelectric Power Plants223
 Water for Energy: Hydropower225
 Water for Energy: Bioenergy228
 Energy for Water228
11.2Water and Industrial Production229
 Improving Efficiency229
 Water Risks and Opportunities230
 Industrial Pollution230
Chapter 12Basic Need and Economic Good: The Contested Role of Economics in Water Management236
12.1The Economic Perspective237
12.2Laws and Markets for Allocating Water239
 Legal Doctrines for Water Allocation240
 Water Markets for Improved Allocation242
 Regulated Riparianism for Improved Allocation245
12.3Pricing for Conservation, Cost Recovery, and Fairness246
 The Argument for Higher Prices248
 The Current Pricing Picture249
 The Equity Problem251
 The Opposing Positions on Privatization252
 Moving Forward: A Middle Ground255
12.5Cost-Benefit Analysis258
 Unquantifiable Factors259
 Pork Barrel Politics260
Chapter 13Conflict and Cooperation: Transboundary and Intersectoral Water Management263
13.1International Water Conflict and Cooperation264
 International Law264
 Water Wars or Water Treaties?266
 Factors Affecting Water Interactions268
 Tools for Moving Toward Cooperation270
 Game Theory271
 Water Conflict and Cooperation in the Jordan River Basin274
13.2Water Conflict and Cooperation in the US278
 The Law of the River278
 Klamath River280
 Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF)282
Chapter 14Conclusion: The Imperative of Better Management284
 Discussion Questions287
 Recommended Readings317

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