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001    42922510 
003    OCoLC 
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006    m     o  d         
007    cr cn||||||||| 
008    910228s1992    cauab   ob   s001 0 eng d 
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043    a-ph--- 
049    MAIN 
050  4 GF852.P6|bL48 1992eb 
072  7 BUS|x054000|2bisacsh 
082 04 333.76/09599/1|220 
100 1  Lewis, Martin W. 
245 10 Wagering the land :|britual, capital, and environmental 
       degradation in the Cordillera of northern Luzon, 1900-1986
       /|cMartin W. Lewis. 
260    Berkeley :|bUniversity of California Press,|c1992. 
300    1 online resource (xii, 280 pages) :|billustrations, maps 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
504    Includes bibliographical references (pages 263-274) and 
       index. 
505 0  1. Introduction. Commercialization and Local Change. 
       Identifying Buguias in the Ethnographic Landscape. 
       Overview -- pt. 1. Prewar Buguias. 2. Food, Fuel, and 
       Fiber: Human Environmental. Relations in Prewar Buguias. 
       Agricultural Fields. Animal Husbandry. The Harvest of 
       Uncultivated Lands. Vegetational Change and Agricultural 
       Intensification. 3. Social Relations: Power and Labor. The
       Commoners. The Elite and Their Servants. Social Mobility. 
       Land Tenure. 4. Religion: The Role of the Ancestors. Gods 
       and Spirits. Prestige Feasts in Prewar Buguias. Status 
       Display. The Ideology of Ritual Performance. 5. Commercial
       and Political Relations. Trade Relations. The Organization
       of Trade. Local Specialization of Production. The Prewar 
       Vegetable Industry. Imperial Power. Colonial Visions. 
       Interregnum: The War -- pt. 2. Vitality and Vulnerability:
       Fluctuations in the Postwar Economy, 1946-1986. 6. The 
       Establishment of Commercial Vegetable Agriculture. Postwar
       Adjustments. The Ecology of Early Vegetable Production in 
       Buguias. Continuing Agricultural Development. Crops and 
       Field Types. Strategies in Vegetable Farming. The Spatial 
       Reorganization of Exchange. 7. The Sociology and Economics
       of Vegetable Production, 1946-1972. Restructured Social 
       Relations. Capital and Labor. The Vegetable Trade. 8. 
       Economic and Ecological Crisis. Boom, Bust, and 
       Readjustment. Demography. Deforestation. Water Shortages, 
       Erosion, and Biocides. The Vegetable Frontier. 9. Social 
       Conflict and Political Struggle. Land Conflicts. The Rise 
       of Youth Culture. Contemporary Politics. 10. Religion in 
       Modern Buguias. The "Buguias Paganism System" Christian 
       Challenge and Pagan Response. The Geography of Religion. 
       Religious Plurality in Present-day Buguias. 11. Conclusion
       : Understanding Buguias's Aberrant Development. The 
       Ideology of Pagan Economics. Ritual Economics and the 
       Social Order. Ritual Survival, Ecological Devastation. 
520 1  "Why do market farmers in the rugged northern Philippine 
       highlands stage ever more costly, elaborate ritual feasts 
       so that their ancestors will shower success on ever more 
       costly, ecologically risky farming ventures? Because the 
       commercialization of agriculture in the area surrounding 
       Buguias has resulted in a unique blend of new and old 
       economic, environmental, and religious practices. Wagering
       the Land documents clearly the ecological degradation 
       commonly associated with "modern" farming methods: 
       deforestation, soil erosion, pesticide contamination, and 
       wildlife extermination. But the breakdown of communal 
       bonds and local beliefs also associated with modernization
       in most theories of rural development simply has not 
       happened. On the contrary, traditional beliefs, and 
       especially the redistributive prestige feasts that figure 
       largely in the indigenous religion (called Paganism by 
       both its adherents and its adversaries), have flourished."
       "Development of truck gardening in the cool highlands of 
       northern Luzon, an area perfectly suited to the 
       cultivation of temperate vegetables, gained momentum after
       World War II. Martin Lewis describes engagingly the 
       economic and social life of Buguias and the centrality of 
       religion during the first four decades of this century, 
       the complete destruction of prewar agriculture and animal 
       husbandry in 1944, and the explosion of commercial farming
       thereafter. Unaccustomed prosperity reinforced the 
       religious practice of lavish communal feasting, which not 
       only honors the dead and bolsters the status of the living
       but also brings "good luck" to the host farmer's 
       enterprise if the ritual succeeds in placating the 
       ancestors. Heavenly favor thus overshadows sound 
       environmental practices, and the region's inhabitants are 
       quite literally wagering their lands in the hope of 
       gaining prosperity and prestige. Anthropologists and 
       geographers, as well as environmental and development 
       specialists interested in the Third World in general and 
       Southeast Asia in particular, will find important new 
       information and arguments in Lewis's well-researched 
       ethnography."--Jacket. 
546    English. 
588 0  Print version record. 
650  0 Nature|xEffect of human beings on|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Agricultural ecology|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Tropical vegetable industry|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Agriculture|xEconomic aspects|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Agriculture|xSocial aspects|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Rites and ceremonies|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  0 Environmental degradation|zPhilippines|zBuguias. 
650  7 BUSINESS & ECONOMICS|xReal Estate|xGeneral.|2bisacsh 
650  7 Agricultural ecology.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst00800685 
650  7 Agriculture|xEconomic aspects.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst00801415 
650  7 Agriculture|xSocial aspects.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst00801646 
650  7 Environmental degradation.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst00912877 
650  7 Nature|xEffect of human beings on.|2fast
       |0(OCoLC)fst01034564 
650  7 Politics and government.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01919741 
650  7 Rites and ceremonies.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01098216 
650  7 Tropical vegetable industry.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01157495 
650  7 Anthropogeography & Human Ecology.|2hilcc 
650  7 Anthropology.|2hilcc 
650  7 Social Sciences.|2hilcc 
651  0 Buguias (Philippines)|xPolitics and government. 
651  0 Buguias (Philippines)|xReligious life and customs. 
651  7 Philippines|zBuguias.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01257641 
653 0  Ethnic groups|aCulture. 
653 0  Philippines. 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aLewis, Martin W.|tWagering the land.
       |dBerkeley : University of California Press, 1992
       |z0520072723|w(DLC)   91012307|w(OCoLC)23355793 
970 01 |tIllustrations 
970 01 |tAcknowledgments 
970 12 |l1|tIntroduction|p1 
970 13 |tCommercialization and Local Change|p3 
970 13 |tIdentifying Buguias in the Ethnographic Landscape|p10 
970 13 |tOverview|p17 
970 11 |lPt. 1|tPrewar Buguias 
970 12 |l2|tFood, Fuel, and Fiber: Human Environmental 
970 13 |tRelations in Prewar Buguias|p21 
970 13 |tAgricultural Fields|p23 
970 13 |tAnimal Husbandry|p30 
970 13 |tThe Harvest of Uncultivated Lands|p34 
970 13 |tVegetational Change and Agricultural Intensification|p38
970 12 |l3|tSocial Relations: Power and Labor|p45 
970 13 |tThe Commoners|p46 
970 13 |tThe Elite and Their Servants|p49 
970 13 |tSocial Mobility|p52 
970 13 |tLand Tenure|p54 
970 12 |l4|tReligion: The Role of the Ancestors|p59 
970 13 |tGods and Spirits|p60 
970 13 |tPrestige Feasts in Prewar Buguias|p65 
970 13 |tStatus Display|p70 
970 13 |tThe Ideology of Ritual Performance|p73 
970 12 |l5|tCommercial and Political Relations|p82 
970 13 |tTrade Relations|p82 
970 13 |tThe Organization of Trade|p88 
970 13 |tLocal Specialization of Production|p92 
970 13 |tThe Prewar Vegetable Industry|p95 
970 13 |tImperial Power|p98 
970 13 |tColonial Visions|p103 
970 13 |tInterregnum: The War|p107 
970 11 |lPt. 2|tVitality and Vulnerability: Fluctuations in the 
       Postwar Economy, 1946-1986 
970 01 |tIntroduction|p115 
970 12 |l6|tThe Establishment of Commercial Vegetable Agriculture
       |p117 
970 13 |tPostwar Adjustments|p118 
970 13 |tThe Ecology of Early Vegetable Production in Buguias
       |p122 
970 13 |tContinuing Agricultural Development|p126 
970 13 |tCrops and Field Types|p129 
970 13 |tStrategies in Vegetable Farming|p136 
970 13 |tThe Spatial Reorganization of Exchange|p139 
970 12 |l7|tThe Sociology and Economics of Vegetable Production, 
       1946-1972|p146 
970 13 |tRestructured Social Relations|p147 
970 13 |tCapital and Labor|p150 
970 13 |tThe Vegetable Trade|p155 
970 12 |l8|tEconomic and Ecological Crisis|p161 
970 13 |tBoom, Bust, and Readjustment|p163 
970 13 |tDemography|p171 
970 13 |tDeforestation|p174 
970 13 |tWater Shortages, Erosion, and Biocides|p180 
970 13 |tThe Vegetable Frontier|p186 
970 12 |l9|tSocial Conflict and Political Struggle|p194 
970 13 |tLand Conflicts|p195 
970 13 |tThe Rise of Youth Culture|p202 
970 13 |tContemporary Politics|p204 
970 12 |l10|tReligion in Modern Buguias|p213 
970 13 |tThe "Buguias Paganism System"|p213 
970 13 |tChristian Challenge and Pagan Response|p219 
970 13 |tThe Geography of Religion|p224 
970 13 |tReligious Plurality in Present-day Buguias|p229 
970 12 |l11|tConclusion: Understanding Buguias's Aberrant 
       Development|p233 
970 13 |tThe Ideology of Pagan Economics|p238 
970 13 |tRitual Economics and the Social Order|p242 
970 13 |tRitual Survival, Ecological Devastation|p246 
970 01 |tGlossary|p251 
970 01 |tNotes|p253 
970 01 |tBibliography|p263 
970 01 |tIndex|p275 
971    |d19980821 
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