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Author Hillstrom, Kevin, 1963-
Title U.S. health policy and politics : a documentary history / Kevin Hillstrom.
Imprint Thousand Oaks, Calif. : CQ Press/SAGE, [2012]

Author Hillstrom, Kevin, 1963-
Subject Medical policy -- United States -- History.
Medical laws and legislation -- United States -- History.
Health Policy -- history.
Delivery of Health Care -- history.
Health Policy -- legislation & jurisprudence.
History, Modern 1601-
United States.
Description xxiii, 717 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
Bibliography Note Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Health care and medical practice in the new world (1600-1800) -- Health care and regulation in antebellum America (1800-1860) -- The professionalization of American medicine (1860-1890) -- Health care in the progressive era (1890-1920) -- The struggle over health insurance between the wars (1920-1940) -- Partisan jousting over health care in the postwar era (1940-1960) -- Medicare changes the health care landscape (1960-1980) -- Restraining health care costs in the age of Reagan (1980-1990) -- The Clinton health plan and scorched-earth politics (1990-2000) -- Controversial policy prescriptions for American health care (2000-2010).
ISBN 9781608710263 (alk. paper)
1608710262 (alk. paper)
OCLC # 693809392
Table of Contents
 Thematic Table Of Contentsxiv
1.Health Care And Medical Practice In The New World, 1600--18001
 Medical Care In The Early Colonial Settlements1
 Quarantines And Other Early Public Health Laws3
 State Support For Early Colonial Hospitals4
 The Boston Smallpox Epidemic Of 17215
 An Unregulated Marketplace For Health Care Practitioners7
 Charlatans, Quacks, And The Patent Medicine Trade9
 Colonial Efforts To Regulate Health Care Services10
 Shifting Attitudes About Government's Role In Public Health11
1.1.Virginia Colony Imposes the First Public Health Law in the New World, 161014
1.2.Plymouth Colony Assigns Responsibility for Health Care Expenses, 164215
1.3.Massachusetts Colony Passes an Act of Instruction for Medical Caregivers, 164916
1.4.The First Naval Quarantine Act in British America, 170017
1.5.A Law for Regulating Midwives in New York City, 171618
1.6.Supporting Inoculation in Boston during a Smallpox Epidemic, 172120
1.7.A Prominent Boston Physician Campaigns against Smallpox Inoculations, 172123
1.8.Virginia Regulates the Fees of Physicians and Apothecaries, 173625
1.9.New York City Issues Regulations for "The Practice of Physick and Surgery," 176027
1.10.Virginia Legislators Move to Punish Smallpox Inoculators, 176928
1.11.Benjamin Rush Gives Directions for Preserving the Health of Soldiers, 177730
1.12.Washington Orders Compulsory Smallpox Inoculation of the Continental Army, 177734
1.13.Congress Passes An Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen, 179836
2.Health Care And Regulation In Antebellum America, 1800--186038
 Early Outlines Of A Government-Supported Hospital System Take Shape39
 Reforms In The Treatment Of The Mentally Ill40
 Compulsory Vaccination And Other Public Health Issues42
 The Regular Profession In Disarray43
 Alternative Healing Choices In The Marketplace44
 Jacksonian Democracy And Health Care46
 A Regulatory Regime In Retreat47
 Medical School Free-For-All48
 Birth Of The American Medical Association49
2.1.Congress Passes a Federal Vaccination Act, 181351
2.2.State Funding Mechanisms for Charity Hospital in New Orleans, 1814, 1837, 183852
2.3.Samuel Thomson Reflects on His Medical System and Regular Physicians, 182254
2.4.John Gunn Attacks Regular Physicians in Domestic Medicine, 183057
2.5.New York Lawmakers Consider Thomsonian Licensing Petitions, 184161
2.6.John Griscom Urges Sanitary Reforms in New York City, 184565
2.7.Dorothea Dix Lobbies State Legislators for a Hospital for the Insane, 184569
2.8.A Sanitary Commission Complains about the Lack of Public Health Regulation in America, 184874
2.9.United States Begins Federal Inspections of Imported Drugs, 184877
2.10.Lemuel Shattuck Issues Recommendations for New Public Health Regulations, 185079
2.11.New York State Incorporates Its First Homeopathic Medical College, 186082
3.The Professionalization Of American Medicine, 1860-189084
 The Civil War And Public Health84
 Postwar Changes To Public Health86
 The Transformation Of Almshouses And Hospitals89
 Medical Advances Rescue American Hospitals90
 Ongoing Battles Within The Medical Profession91
 Medical Education After The Civil War92
 States Press For Medical Licensing Regulations93
 The Rise And Fall Of The National Board Of Health95
3.1.The Lincoln Administration Approves the U.S. Sanitary Commission, 186197
3.2.U.S. Sanitary Commission Campaign to Reorganize the Medical Bureau, 186298
3.3.An Assassination Attempt Renews Allopath-Homeopath Hostilities, 1865105
3.4.New York Metropolitan Board of Health Issues Its First Annual Report, 1867107
3.5.Marine Hospitals Services Act, 1870113
3.6.Reform Recommendations for Almshouses in Pennsylvania, 1871114
3.7.National Quarantine Act, 1878116
3.8.Congress Expands the Powers of the National Board of Health, 1879118
3.9.A Boston Medical Journal Mourns the Gains of Women Physicians, 1879121
3.10.Louisiana Politics Bedevil Federal Health Inspectors, 1881123
3.11.A Commentary on "The Present Condition of National Health Legislation," 1885128
3.12.U.S. Supreme Court Affirms State Authority over Medical Licensing, 1888131
4.Health Care In The Progressive Era, 1890--1920133
 A Revolution In Public Health Regulation133
 Roosevelt Charts A New Course In Public Health Administration135
 The Spanish Flu Epidemic Of 1918137
 The Ama Comes Into Its Own139
 Regulating The Medical Profession140
 Emergence Of The Modern American Hospital142
 The Growing Problem Of Health Care Costs143
 "The Next Great Step In Social Legislation"144
4.1.A Wisconsin Physician Urges State Regulation of Medical Practices, 1892148
4.2.Political Warfare over Smallpox Treatment in Milwaukee, 1894152
4.3.A Famous Health Reformer Endorses State Registration of Nurses, 1903155
4.4.Government Guidelines for the Medical Inspection of Immigrants, 1903159
4.5.Immigration Restriction League Warns about Dangers to Public Health, 1904161
4.6.U.S. Supreme Court Endorses Compulsory Vaccination in Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 1905165
4.7.A Muckraker Condemns America's Patent Medicine Industry, 1905171
4.8.Flexner Report Demands Reforms of American Medical Education, 1910176
4.9.A Senator's Call for a Cabinet-Level Public Health Department, 1910182
4.10.Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" Party Calls for Universal Health Insurance, 1912185
4.11.Public Health Service Compares Health Insurance in America and Europe, 1913189
4.12.A Reformer Makes the Case for National Health Insurance, 1916195
4.13.Educating Navy Personnel about a Deadly Influenza Epidemic, 1918201
4.14.An Insurance Executive Excoriates Government-Run Health Insurance, 1920203
4.15.Progressives Assail Industry-Backed Opponents of Health Insurance Reform, 1920207
5.The Struggle Over Health Insurance Between The Wars, 1920--1940214
 An Age Of Medical Marvels And Skyrocketing Medical Expenses214
 The Economic Toll Of Sickness216
 Management And Worker Health Programs In The Early Depression Years217
 Group Health Insurance And The Birth Of Blue Cross218
 Debating The Role Of Government In Health Care220
 The Committee On The Costs Of Medical Care221
 A Political Battle Royal223
 Roosevelt And The New Dealers224
 A New Deal Push For Health Care Reform224
 National Health Insurance And The Committee On Economic Security225
 Roosevelt Signs The Social Security Act227
 The Growing Governmental Role In Health Care228
 Taking Up The Health Insurance Gauntlet Once Again230
5.1.Defending the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act, 1920233
5.2.Principles of the American Birth Control League, 1922239
5.3.American Medical Association Formally Repudiates "State Medicine," 1922241
5.4.A Call for Expanded State Involvement in All Phases of Health Care, 1926242
5.5.Establishment of the First Blue Cross Plans, 1930s246
5.6.Landmark Report from the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, 1932248
5.7.Minority Report of the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, 1932253
5.8.I.M. Rubinow's Quest for Security, 1934257
5.9.Franklin D. Roosevelt Voices Support for National Social Insurance, 1934258
5.10.Report of the Committee on Economic Security, 1935262
5.11.President Roosevelt Signs the Social Security Act, 1935268
5.12.Kansas Governor Landon Vows to Repeal Social Security If Elected President, 1936269
5.13.U.S. Public Health Service and the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, 1936273
5.14.National Cancer Institute Act, 1937274
5.15.Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938277
5.16.Report of the Technical Committee on Medical Care, 1938278
5.17.Morris Fishbein Describes Health Insurance as a Threat to the Doctor-Patient Relationship, 1939285
6.Partisan Jousting Over Health Care In The Postwar Era, 1940--1960289
 Health Care Politics During Roosevelt's Last Years289
 Truman Takes Up The Cause292
 Out Of The Ashes294
 Health Care Politics And The Cold War295
 Health Insurance Comes Of Age297
 Mixed Fortunes For Blue Cross299
 Insurance Reform Fades As A Political Issue300
 Eisenhower Touts "Reinsurance"302
 Aid For The Aged: The Forand Bill303
6.1.A Progressive Call for an Expanded Governmental Role in All Phases of Health, 1943306
6.2.California Medical Association Defeats State Health Insurance Legislation, 1945311
6.3.Truman Calls for National Health Insurance, 1945316
6.4.National Mental Health Act, 1946324
6.5.Laying the Groundwork for the Hill-Burton Act, 1946329
6.6.Modernizing the Hospitals and Clinics of the Veterans Administration, 1946332
6.7.Senator Taft Denounces Compulsory Insurance as Socialized Medicine, 1946334
6.8.Truman Again Calls on Congress to Address National "Health Needs," 1949338
6.9.Eisenhower Unveils a Health Care "Reinsurance" Proposal, 1954343
6.10.Polio Vaccination Assistance Act, 1955346
6.11.Big Labor Pushes for Government Health Care for the Elderly, 1959348
6.12.Congress Passes the Kerr-Mills Act, 1960352
7.Medicare Changes The Health Care Landscape, 1960--1980356
 The Advent Of A Democratic Decade356
 A Revolution In Mental Retardation Policy357
 Surveying The Health Care Landscape358
 Kennedy's Campaign For Medicare359
 1964 Election Results Seen As Mandate361
 Passing Medicare And Medicaid362
 Mixed Results Bring New Controversies364
 A Health Care System In Transition365
 Nixon's Prescription For America's Health Care "Crisis"367
 A Democratic Political Calculation Goes Awry369
7.1.Ronald Reagan Urges Opposition to Medicare, 1961373
7.2.President Kennedy Tries to Rally Public Support for Medicare, 1962377
7.3.A Cartoonist Lampoons the American Medical Association, 1962381
7.4.Kennedy's Presidential Panel on Mental Retardation, 1962382
7.5.American Courts Order Desegregation of Southern Hospitals, 1963387
7.6.U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health, 1964390
7.7.1964 Elections Break the Political Logjam on Medicare, 1965393
7.8.President Johnson Reflects on His Support for Medicare and Social Security, 1965396
7.9.An Influential Member of Congress Recalls the Development of Medicare Part B, 1965397
7.10.President Johnson Signs Medicare and Medicaid into Law, 1965400
7.11.Launching the War on Cancer, 1969403
7.12.A Warning about America's Growing "Medical-Industrial Complex," 1970406
7.13.President Nixon Signs the Clean Air Act, 1970411
7.14.Justice Blackmun Delivers the Supreme Court Decision in Roe v. Wade, 1973413
7.15.Congress Passes the Rehabilitation Act, 1973419
7.16.President Nixon Signs the Health Maintenance Organization Act, 1973421
7.17.President Nixon Proposes a National Health Insurance Plan, 1974422
7.18.President Ford Signs the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, 1974430
8.Restraining Health Care Costs In The Age Of Reagan, 1980--1990433
 Sensible Deficit Reduction Or "Shifting The Shaft"?433
 Political Battles Over Medicaid's Future435
 The Advent Of Medicare's Prospective Payment System436
 Debating The Impact Of Pps438
 Tackling Medicare Physician Spending439
 Iimos Remake The Health Care Landscape439
 Patient Care In The Age Of Free Market Medicine441
 New Policy Prescriptions For The Pharmaceutical Industry442
 Lawyers And Doctors Face Off Over Medical Malpractice442
 The Aids Epidemic444
 Political Wrangling Over Women's Health Research445
 The Americans With Disabilities Act447
 Rising Costs Fuel Drive To Identify Best Practices449
 The Catastrophic Coverage Debacle450
8.1.An Investor's Guide to Health Maintenance Organizations, 1982454
8.2.President Reagan Signs the Orphan Drug Act, 1983459
8.3.Arrival of the Medicare Prospective Payment System, 1983460
8.4.Senator Hatch Recalls the Political Battle over the Hatch-Waxman Act, 1984468
8.5.Congress Passes the National Organ Transplant Act, 1984473
8.6.Women's Health Emerges as a Political Issue, 1985476
8.7.COBRA Allows Laid-Off Workers to Keep Their Health Coverage, 1985480
8.8.AMA Calls for Relief from Medical Malpractice Lawsuits, 1986484
8.9.ABA Defends Medical Malpractice Laws in America's Tort System, 1986489
8.10.Reagan's First Major Speech on AIDS, 1987494
8.11.HHS Secretary Bowen Recalls the Creation of the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act, 1986--1988498
8.12.Reagan Signs the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act, 1988504
8.13.Congress Repeals the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act, 1989506
8.14.Congress Agrees to Research Best Practices in Health Care, 1989509
8.15.Congress Throws Its Support behind the Ryan White CARE Act, 1990511
8.16.Government Report Takes the NIH to Task on Women's Health, 1990514
8.17.Justin Dart Hails the Signing of the Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990519
9.The Clinton Health Plan And Scorched-Earth Politics, 1990--2000522
 Upset Victory In Pennsylvania Seen As Political Bellwether522
 Clinton Promises Sweeping Health Care Reform523
 Pushing Through Mounting Political Turbulence On Health Care Reform524
 Republicans Unite Against The Health Security Act526
 Republican Charges Against Health Care Reform Gain Traction527
 American News Media And The Health Security Act529
 Clinton's Health Reform Plan Goes Down To Defeat529
 States Move To Impose New Rules On Hmos530
 Clinton Vetoes Gop Medicare And Medicaid Reform Proposals532
 Reaching Across The Political Divide534
 Historic Tobacco Settlement Brings New Controversies536
9.1.Harris Wofford Rides Health Care to a Stunning Political Upset, 1991539
9.2.Clinton Unveils His Health Care Plan to Congress, 1993541
9.3.Hillary Rodham Clinton Testifies in Support of Health Care Reform, 1993548
9.4.A Key Strategist Urges Republicans to Defeat Clinton's Health Reform Proposal, 1993552
9.5.Senator Dole Lambastes the Clinton Health Care Plan, 1994557
9.6.A Democratic Senator Laments the Death of the Clinton Health Reform Plan, 1994559
9.7.A Republican Senator Applauds the Demise of the Clinton Health Care Plan, 1994562
9.8.Senator Mitchell Closes the Book on the Clinton Health Care Plan, 1994565
9.9.Appropriations Battles over Health Care Research, 1995567
9.10.President Clinton Vetoes Cuts to Medicare and Medicaid, 1995571
9.11.Senator Kassebaum Touts the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996573
9.12.Senator Kennedy Urges Passage of Health Insurance Legislation for Children, 1997576
9.13.Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, 1998579
9.14.States Take Aim at Managed Care with New Consumer Protections, 1993--1997584
9.15.Debating Oregon's Death with Dignity Law, 1997585
9.16.Institute of Medicine Sounds an Alarm about Medical Errors in Hospitals, 1999591
9.17.President Clinton Extols New Rules to Ensure Medical Privacy, 2000595
9.18.RU486 Abortion Pill Adds Fuel to America's Political "Culture Wars," 2000597
10.Controversial Policy Prescriptions For American Health Care, 2000--2010602
 George W. Bush Touts Pro-Life Policies602
 Controversy Rages Over The Medicare Modernization Act604
 The Pros And Cons Of Medicare Advantage605
 Making Sense Of The Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit606
 Political Brawl Over Schip Obscures Areas Of Consensus608
 Heightened Calls For Sweeping Health Care Reform609
 Targeting Waste And Inefficiency In The Health Care System610
 Policy Prescriptions For Addressing The Health Care Crisis612
 Obama Lays Out His Plan For Passing Health Care Reform615
 Looking To The Example Of Massachusetts616
 Health Reform Hits Tea Party Turbulence617
 Democrats Push Toward The Finish Line On Health Care619
 Scott Brown's Victory Changes The Political Landscape622
 The Democrats Finally Pass Health Care Reform623
 Democrats Celebrate, Republicans Vow To Repeal625
10.1.President Bush Stakes Out His Position on Stem Cell Research, 2001628
10.2.Controversial Vote on the Medicare Prescription Drug Act, 2003632
10.3.Bush Touts the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit, 2005638
10.4.Massachusetts Passes Major Health Insurance Reform, 2006642
10.5.Washington Reacts to a Supreme Court Decision on "Partial-Birth" Abortion, 2007644
10.6.Political Battle over SCHIP Reauthorization, 2007647
10.7.Bipartisan Support for the Wellstone Mental Health Parity Act, 2008652
10.8.White House Forum on Health Reform, 2009655
10.9.Major Stakeholders Signal Support for Obama's Health Reform Efforts, 2009658
10.10.An Obama Budget Official Defends Health Reform, 2009660
10.11.Senator Lieberman Turns against the Public Option, 2009663
10.12.Scott Brown's Victory Speech in Massachusetts, 2010666
10.13.President Obama and Senator Kyl Square Off at the Health Care Summit, 2010669
10.14.Obama Speaks to House Democrats on the Eve of the Health Reform Vote, 2010672
10.15.Minority Leader Boehner Urges a Vote against the Affordable Care Act, 2010677
10.16.A Republican Pundit Laments a Conservative "Waterloo," 2010679
10.17.Obama Signs the Health Care Reform Bill into Law, 2010682
 Illustration Credit693

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